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Tag Archives: Eaton Centre History

Church of the Holy Trinity, Toronto (history)

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The Church of the Holy Trinity, located in Trinity Square in downtown Toronto, is located on the west side of today’s busy Eaton Centre.  When the church was built in 1847, Henry Scadding, author of “Toronto of Old” (published in 1873), stated that just ten years prior to its consecration, the land to the south of the church was “fields,” and to the north of the church were swamps and dense forest. The area where the church was eventually erected was referred to as Macaulay’s Fields, as it is where the Macaulay family had built their home.

The history of the Church of the Holy Trinity commenced when Bishop Strachan, who is today buried in St. James Cathedral on King Street East, received a donation of 5000 pounds sterling to build and maintain a church in Toronto. Conditions were attached to the funds—it was to be named the Church of the Holy Trinity, the seats were to be forever free and not designated for the use of a specific person. The terms also stipulated that 3000 pounds were to be spent on the building and 2000 pounds on an investment for the incumbent clergyman that would be appointed. The land for the church was donated by James Simcoe Macaulay. His house was relocated a short distance to the north to accommodate the site for the church.

Henry Scadding wrote in 1873 in “Toronto of Old” page 290: “The church with its twin towers, now seen in the middle space of Trinity Square, was a gift of benevolence to Western Canada in 1846 from two ladies, sisters. The personal character of Bishop Strachan was the attraction that drew the boon to Toronto.” Note: Scadding did not identify the names of the sisters.

Eric Arthur states in, “Toronto—No Mean City,” (page 84): “It was not until 1898 that the donor was known to be Mrs. Lambert Swale of Settle, near Ripon, in Yorkshire.” It was said that after visiting Toronto she was dismayed at the exclusive pew-holding system at St. James Cathedral. On her return to England, she arranged for the money to be sent to the city to build the Church of the Holy Trinity. During the years ahead, Mrs. Swale continued to support the church. The following is another quote from Eric Arthur’s book, “Toronto—No Mean City.”  “She provided silver sacramental plate for public use and smaller service for private ministrations, a large supply of fair linen, a covering of Genoa velvet for the altar, and surplice for the clergy.” (page 84)

Bishop Strachan hired Henry Bower Lane as the architect for Holy Trinity. He had designed a section of Osgoode Hall, as well as Little Trinity Church on King Street East. Henry Bower Lane had been a pupil of Sir Charles Barry, the designer of the Houses of Parliament at Westminster in London.

The Church of the Holy Trinity was constructed in the Gothic style, its interior in the cruciform plan, the altar visible regardless of where parishioners were seated. The structure’s facades were of yellow bricks from the Don Valley brickyards, and timbers were cut from the nearby forests. Its main entrance faced west, with an impressive Gothic doorway and a large window above it. Two towers were built on the northwest and southwest corners of the west facade. The slate tiles for the roof arrived in Canada as ballast in sailing ships.

Because the seating in Holy Trinity was free, the church had no funds from this source and was reliant on the endowment provided by Mrs. Swale. Bishop Strachan appointed his young chaplain, Henry Scadding, who was employed as a classics master at Upper Canada College, to be the church’s incumbent clergyman. Scadding remained its rector until 1875. He died in 1901.

When Holy Trinity was consecrated on October 27, 1847, Bishop Strachan invited poor families of the Church of England faith to make the new church their spiritual home. This was not an attempt to restrict the parishioners to those of humble means, but rather to fulfill the terms attached to the donation. It was the first church in Toronto to have free pews. At the time, most churches charged pew rental fees. The cost of a pew at St. James Cathedral was prohibitive for those lacking a sizeable income.

In 1849, a fire swept along King Street that severely damaged the church of St. James. While it was being rebuilt, many of the parishioners from St. James worshipped at Holy Trinity, including Lord Elgin, Governor General of the province of Canada. This ended in 1850, when the new St. James was consecrated.

From the mid 1800s, Holy Trinity was known as a church associated with the “Catholic Revival” in the Church of England, which sought inspiration from the Medieval days. It was viewed by some as a purer faith, as it applied more formality to the services than other churches. However, this was coupled with a  keen sense of social responsibility, a commitment that was intensified when the Rev. John Frank became rector in the 1930s.  It was he who introduced the pageant of the “Christmas Story,” a tradition that continues to this day.

When the $200 million Eaton Centre was originally planned, it encompassed 15 acres, which included the land where the church was located. The developers wished to demolish the church and include the land within the Centre. The congregation refused to sell, and the Eaton Centre was forced to build around the structure, thus preserving this historic church and two other building (Scadding House and the church rectory).

The Church of the Holy Trinity is today well recognized for its outreach program, which ministers to the needs of people in the inner city. It is a unique congregation with roots in Toronto’s past, but well aware of the people’s needs today.

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Map of 1845 depicts what is today Trinity Square. In that era, it was a section of the estate of The Hon. John Simcoe Macaulay, part of Park Lot #9, granted to him by Lieu. Governor Simcoe in 1797. The property was referred to as Macaulay’s Fields. The map shows the large house that he named Teraulay, a grand residence, even though he referred to it as his “country cottage.” The map shows the  gardens (that included an orchard), a poultry house, stables and wood shed. The map also reveals that a carriageway connected the house with Yonge Street, to the east. Jeremy Street was later renamed Louisa Street, which has disappeared from the city scene. The eastern part of it was absorbed into the Eaton Centre. Teraulay Street became Bay Street. Macaulay Fields became Trinity Square after the Church of the Holy Trinity was erected.

Teraulay Town, on the southwest corner of the map, eventually became essentially slums. They were demolished to allow the construction of the City Hall that opened in 1899. It is today the Old City Hall. The map is from the collection of the Toronto Public Library, r-5646.

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Sketch of the interior of Holy Trinity in 1850. Toronto Public Library, r-538.

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Nave and Sanctuary of the Church of the Holy Trinity in 1868. Toronto Public Library, r- 505.

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The camera is pointed west toward Trinity Square from near Yonge Street, in 1875. The street was formerly the carriageway that connected Macaulay’s house (Teraulay) with Yonge Street. Church of the Holy Trinity is in Trinity Square, and on the right-hand side of the photo is the parsonage, residence of the minister of the church. Toronto Public Library, r- 469.

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The Church of the Holy Trinity in 1884. Toronto Public Library, r- 504.

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View of the south facade of Holy Trinity in 1908. In the foreground  workers are beginning construction of an Eaton’s warehouse. Toronto Public Library r 1461. 

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            Holy Trinity in 1913. Toronto Public Library r 536.

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View looking east in 1936 at the carriageway that connects Trinity Square with Yonge Street. The building in the foreground is the rectory. To the east of it is Scadding House, the home of Dr. Henry Scadding, when it was on its original location. To build the Eaton Centre, Scadding House was moved 150 feet to the west. Toronto Archives r 5724.

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View of Trinity Square in 1972, before construction of the Eaton Centre. The view looks east towards Yonge Street, where the marquee of the Imperial Theatre (now the Ed Mirvish) is visible. Behind the church is the Parochial Building (now demolished) and the Rectory. The large Eaton warehouse is to the south (right-hand) side of the image. Toronto Public Library, tspa 0110944. 

                               tspa_0109997 relocating Scadding House, 1974  [1]

Relocating Scadding House in 1974. Toronto Public Library, tspa 0109997.

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This dramatic watercolour was painted in 1975, the view looking northwest from Queen Street West, near Louisa Street. It depicts the construction site for the Eaton Centre. Scadding House is on its present-day site, having been relocated 150 feet west from its original location. To the right of the church is the rectory. Eaton’s warehouses are in the background. Toronto Public Library, 977-51-1.

1987.--tspa_0110945f1_thumb2

Trinity Square in 1987, the Eaton Centre having been completed in 1979. Behind the church the roof of Scadding House is visible. To the left of the church is the rectory. On the far left (west) of the church is the immense parking garage of the Eaton Centre. Toronto Public Library, tspa 0110945.

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(left)The restored Scadding House in 1987, the rectory visible in the background. The Eaton Centre is to the immediate east of the house. Toronto Public Library, tspa 0110949. (right) Scadding House in 2013.

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Facade of the Church, with its Gothic facade and twin towers in 2013.

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The Gothic doorway on the west side (left), and the stained-glass window above it (right).

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            Gothic windows, view from the interior of the church.

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                                  Ceiling of the church in 2013.

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              Interior view of the Church of the Holy Trinity in 2013.

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The church today remains a quiet sanctuary in the heart of downtown Toronto.

Sources of In formation: Pamphlet provided to visitors to the Church of the Holy Trinity — Eric Arthur’s book, “Toronto—No Mean City,” University of Toronto Press, published 1964 — Henry Scadding, “Toronto of Old.” Oxford University Press, published 1873 — Frederick H. Armstrong, “Toronto,” produced in cooperation with the Toronto Historical Society, 1983.

To view the Home Page for this blog: https://tayloronhistory.wordpress.com/

For more information about the topics explored on this blog:

https://tayloronhistory.wordpress.com/2016/03/02/tayloronhistory-comcheck-it-out/

              Books by the Blog’s Author

               DSCN2207_thumb9_thumb2_thumb4_thumb  

“ Lost Toronto”—employing detailed archival photographs, this recaptures the city’s lost theatres, sporting venues, bars, restaurants and shops. This richly illustrated book brings some of Toronto’s most remarkable buildings and much-loved venues back to life. From the loss of John Strachan’s Bishop’s Palace in 1890 to the scrapping of the S. S. Cayuga in 1960 and the closure of the HMV Superstore in 2017, these pages cover more than 150 years of the city’s built heritage to reveal a Toronto that once was.

 

                         cid_E474E4F9-11FC-42C9-AAAD-1B66D852[2]

Toronto’s Theatres and the Golden Age of the Silver Screen,” explores 50 of Toronto’s old theatres and contains over 80 archival photographs of the facades, marquees and interiors of the theatres. It relates anecdotes and stories by the author and others who experienced these grand old movie houses. To place an order for this book, published by History Press:

https://www.historypress.net/catalogue/bookstore/books/Toronto-Theatres-and-the-Golden-Age-of-the-Silver-Screen/9781626194502 .

Book also available in most book stores such as Chapter/Indigo, the Bell Lightbox and AGO Book Shop. It can also be ordered by phoning University of Toronto Press, Distribution: 416-667-7791 (ISBN 978.1.62619.450.2)

 

                  image_thumb6_thumb_thumb_thumb_thumb[1]

“Toronto’s Movie Theatres of Yesteryear—Brought Back to Thrill You Again” explores 81 theatres. It contains over 125 archival photographs, with interesting anecdotes about these grand old theatres and their fascinating histories. Note: an article on this book was published in Toronto Life Magazine, October 2016 issue.

For a link to the article published by |Toronto Life Magazine: torontolife.com/…/photos-old-cinemas-dougtaylortoronto-local-movie-theatres-of-y…

The book is available at local book stores throughout Toronto or for a link to order this book: https://www.dundurn.com/books/Torontos-Local-Movie-Theatres-Yesteryear 

 

 Toronto: Then and Now®

“Toronto Then and Now,” published by Pavilion Press (London, England) explores 75 of the city’s heritage sites. It contains archival and modern photos that allow readers to compare scenes and discover how they have changed over the decades. Note: a review of this book was published in Spacing Magazine, October 2016. For a link to this review:

spacing.ca/toronto/2016/09/02/reading-list-toronto-then-and-now/

For further information on ordering this book, follow the link to Amazon.com  here  or contact the publisher directly by the link below:

http://www.ipgbook.com/toronto–then-and-now—products-9781910904077.php?page_id=21

 

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Toronto’s Eaton Centre—Phase One (history)

                    1977  tspa_0109978f[1]

Toronto Eaton Centre (Phase One) in 1977, the year  it opened. View gazes north, the fountain in the foreground. Toronto Public Library, tspa 0109978. 

I will never forget the opening of the first phase of the Eaton Centre on February 10, 1977, as it was a major event in Toronto’s retail history. On the afternoon of the day it was inaugurated, I travelled on the Yonge subway to the Dundas Street station. The train almost emptied as people excitedly pushed through the turnstiles to reach the underground entrance of the Centre. I was merely sightseeing, but I sensed that most visitors were anxious to take advantage of the opening-day sales.

When Phase One opened in 1977, it only extended from Dundas Street, south to Albert Street. Despite being only half the size of today’s mall, it still appeared massive; it was the largest structure of its type that I had ever experienced. My only basis of comparison was Yorkdale Mall, which had opened it 1964. The Eaton Centre contained five levels, unlike Yorkdale that was mostly on one level, though the Eaton’s and Simpsons department stores contained many storeys.

On my first visit to the Eaton Centre, at the south end where the mall ended, there was a fountain that every five minutes or so sent a stream of water skyward, almost touching the glass roof. It was quite a sight when the fountain suddenly ceased, and the tower of water plunged downward. The fountain still exists today, but I believe that it no longer has the impressive geyser of former years. The mall’s enormous indoor space accommodated many high-end shops that attracted Torontonians and tourists alike.

                                       * * *

     History of the Site of the Eaton Centre

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        Post card depicting the Eaton’s complex at Yonge and Queen in 1920.

Prior to the Second World War, the intersection at Queen and Yonge Streets was the centre of Toronto’s retail trade, the department stores Eaton’s and Simpsons being the major attractions. After the war, many people migrated to the suburbs as they possessed more disposable funds and had purchased automobiles. The intersection of Queen and Yonge was too distant to service the needs of these suburbanites.

The era of the automobile-centred shopping mall commenced. Eaton’s Yorkdale was a response to this need, and was Canada’s first large indoor shopping space. It had huge parking areas to accommodate cars. However, despite Eaton’s expansion into the suburb’s, the company had no intention of neglecting its downtown site.

On March 1, 1966, Cadillac Fairview joined with Eaton’s and announced plans for a new Eaton Centre, an enormous mall that when completed would extend from Queen Street, north to Dundas. However, plans of this scope required several years to coalesce, its design and format changing several times before construction was able to begin. Its architects were the Zeidler Partnership and Bregman and Hamann.

The configuration of the new mall was highly controversial. Many properties, particularly on Yonge Street, needed to be purchased and the buildings on the sites torn down. Initial plans also included the demolition of the Old City Hall and the Church of the Holy Trinity, the latter a heritage building dating back to 1847. However, citizens’ fierce objections put an end to these proposals. A modified plan allowed the City Hall clock tower and the cenotaph to remain, after the Old City Hall was dismantled. This too was refused.

For the next two years, the developers negotiated with the Church of the Holy Trinity. Though plans for the demolition of the church had ended, the congregation still objected to the new proposal as the developers wanted to erect multi-storeyed buildings on the south and west sides of the church. This would entail the loss of sunlight around the church. The Salvation Army Headquarters at Albert and James Streets was another holdout, as the organization did not wish to relinquish its property. The developers finally realized that their original plans were not possible and besides, they were generating too much negative publicity. After more negotiations and compromises, city council finally approved the plans.

When phase one opened in 1977, the new Eaton’s store was at its north end. This facilitated the closing and demolition of the old Eaton’s Queen Street store, so that construction of phase two could begin. 

Sources: thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/eaton-centre and torontoist.com/2017/02/historicist-opening-the-eaton-centre and  

blogto.com/city/2010/12/the_origins_of_the_eaton_centre/

The Eaton Centre Site Prior to Construction of the Eaton Centre

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Plans submitted in 1967 for the Eaton Centre. The buildings inside the outlined rectangle (bounded by Queen, Dundas, James, and Yonge Streets) were to be demolished. The Old City Hall and Holy Trinity Church were included among the structures to be removed. This plan was soundly rejected. Toronto Public Library, tspa 0108868.

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Gazing south on Yonge Street from near Dundas Street in 1972. The buildings on the west side of Yonge (right-hand side) were all demolished to allow construction of the Eaton Centre. In the distance, the tall building near the water tower on a roof, is the old Eaton Store on Queen Street. It was eventually demolished to make way for Phase Two of the Eaton Centre. On the left-hand side of the photo is the marquee of the Downtown Theatre. Today, the site of the theatre is part of Dundas Square. Toronto Public Library, tspa 0110147.

                       east to Yonge, 1972  tspa_0110944f[1]

View of Trinity Square and the Church of the Holy Trinity in 1972. The camera is pointed east toward Yonge Street. The marquee of the Imperial Theatre can be seen at the top-left-hand edge of the photo. The four-storey building on the east side of Yonge, with the large window topped by a Roman arch, is 241 Yonge Street, which still exists today. All the buildings on the east side of Yonge Street were demolished. Photo from the Toronto Public Library, tspa 0110944.

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Scadding House in 1973, amid the construction of the Eaton Centre. It was to the east of the Church of The Holy Trinity, the street in front of it extending east to Yonge Street. To build the Eaton Centre, it was necessary to relocated the house 150 feet to the west. In the background of the photo, the “Imperial Six Theatre” on Yonge Street can be seen. It has the large round window. Toronto Public Library, tspa 019995.

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(left) Relocating Scadding House in 1974. tspa 019797.   (Right) Scadding House in 2015 after it was restored.

Construction of phase one the Eaton Centre (from Dundas to Albert Street)

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Artist’s sketch drawn in 1972, gazing south on Yonge from Dundas Street. This was how the artist envisioned the east side of Yonge after the Eaton Centre was completed. Alas, it did not become the animated, people-friendly exterior that the artist depicted. Toronto Public Library, tspa 0110003 

Yonge and Albert 1972  tspa_0109996f[1]

Gazing west on Albert Street in 1972. All the buildings on the north (right-hand side) of Albert Street were demolished to erect Phase One of the Eaton Centre. The Eaton’s Queen Street store is on the south side of Albert (left-hand side of photo). It was demolished to build Phase Two. The Canada Life Building on University Avenue can be seen in the distance, at the end of the street. The section of Albert Street between Yonge and James Street is today absorbed into the Eaton Centre. Toronto Public Library, tspa 010996.                           

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View gazes east on Dundas Street in 1973, a short distance west of Yonge Street. Workmen are demolishing the buildings on the southwest corner of Yonge and Dundas. On the northeast corner is the famous Brown Derby Tavern. Toronto Public Library tspa 0109960.

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View gazing west at the site of Phase One in 1974, after the buildings had been demolished. The old Eaton Queen Street store is at the south end of the cleared site. It remained open for business until Phase One was completed. The Old and New City Halls are visible. The street that extends the full length of the photo (on the right-hand side) is Dundas Street West. Yonge Street is in the foreground. Toronto Public Library, tspa 0109954.

View of exterior of Eaton Centre construction site, with sign – April 18, 1975

View looking south on Yonge Street in 1975, the east side of the street cleared of buildings. The Eaton Centre is under construction behind the hoarding. Eaton’s Queen Street store is at the south end of the construction site. Beyond it, a sliver of the Simpsons store can be seen. Toronto Archives, Fonds 1526, File 84, item 60.

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View of Phase One as it is nearing completion in 1976. In the photo, at the south end of Phase One is Albert Street. The Church of the Holy Trinity is visible on the west side of Phase One of the Eaton Centre. Toronto Public Library tspa 0109984. 

                           early 1976, construction tspa_0109988f[1]

View of the interior in 1976, as construction of Phase One nears completion. The camera is pointed south toward Albert Street, where the mall terminates. Behind the wall at the far end was where Phase Two would eventually appear. Toronto Public Library, tapa 0109988.

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Opening day of the Eaton Centre in 1977. View gazes west, Yonge Street in the foreground. The expansive glass-roofed entrance on Dundas Street is visible. Toronto Public Library, taps 010999.

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View of the Centre Court of Phase One of the Eaton Centre in 1977. The camera faces east toward Yonge Street. Toronto Public Library, tspa 0109970.

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The north end of Phase One of the Eaton Centre in 1977. Toronto Public Library, tspa 0110001.

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View of the Eaton Centre in 1978 from the corner of Yonge and Dundas Streets. Photo from the Ontario Archives.

For a link to Phase Two of the Eaton Centre:

https://tayloronhistory.wordpress.com/2018/01/19/torontos-eaton-centre-phase-two-history/

To view the Home Page for this blog: https://tayloronhistory.wordpress.com/

For more information about the topics explored on this blog:

https://tayloronhistory.wordpress.com/2016/03/02/tayloronhistory-comcheck-it-out/

              Books by the Blog’s Author

 DSCN2207_thumb9_thumb2_thumb4_thumb  

“ Lost Toronto”—employing detailed archival photographs, this recaptures the city’s lost theatres, sporting venues, bars, restaurants and shops. This richly illustrated book brings some of Toronto’s most remarkable buildings and much-loved venues back to life. From the loss of John Strachan’s Bishop’s Palace in 1890 to the scrapping of the S. S. Cayuga in 1960 and the closure of the HMV Superstore in 2017, these pages cover more than 150 years of the city’s built heritage to reveal a Toronto that once was.

 

 cid_E474E4F9-11FC-42C9-AAAD-1B66D852

Toronto’s Theatres and the Golden Age of the Silver Screen,” explores 50 of Toronto’s old theatres and contains over 80 archival photographs of the facades, marquees and interiors of the theatres. It relates anecdotes and stories by the author and others who experienced these grand old movie houses. To place an order for this book, published by History Press:

https://www.historypress.net/catalogue/bookstore/books/Toronto-Theatres-and-the-Golden-Age-of-the-Silver-Screen/9781626194502 .

Book also available in most book stores such as Chapter/Indigo, the Bell Lightbox and AGO Book Shop. It can also be ordered by phoning University of Toronto Press, Distribution: 416-667-7791 (ISBN 978.1.62619.450.2) 

 

 image_thumb6_thumb_thumb_thumb_thumb[1]

“Toronto’s Movie Theatres of Yesteryear—Brought Back to Thrill You Again” explores 81 theatres. It contains over 125 archival photographs, with interesting anecdotes about these grand old theatres and their fascinating histories. Note: an article on this book was published in Toronto Life Magazine, October 2016 issue.

For a link to the article published by |Toronto Life Magazine: torontolife.com/…/photos-old-cinemas-dougtaylortoronto-local-movie-theatres-of-y…

The book is available at local book stores throughout Toronto or for a link to order this book: https://www.dundurn.com/books/Torontos-Local-Movie-Theatres-Yesteryear 

 

 Toronto: Then and Now®

“Toronto Then and Now,” published by Pavilion Press (London, England) explores 75 of the city’s heritage sites. It contains archival and modern photos that allow readers to compare scenes and discover how they have changed over the decades. Note: a review of this book was published in Spacing Magazine, October 2016. For a link to this review:

spacing.ca/toronto/2016/09/02/reading-list-toronto-then-and-now/

For further information on ordering this book, follow the link to Amazon.com  here  or contact the publisher directly by the link below:

http://www.ipgbook.com/toronto–then-and-now—products-9781910904077.php?page_id=21

 

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